One of the big differences between experts and novices in any domain is the facility with which they distinguish what is critical from what is unimportant or irrelevant. As a consequence, one of the most effective ways to make information more accessible is to provide explicit cues or prompts that assist individuals in attending to those features that matter most while avoiding those that matter least.
Share: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. Highlight or emphasize key elements in text, graphics, diagrams, formulas Use outlines, graphic organizers, unit organizer routines, concept organizer routines, and concept mastery routines to emphasize key ideas and relationships Use multiple examples and non-examples to emphasize critical features Use cues and prompts to draw attention to critical features Highlight previously learned skills that can be used to solve unfamiliar problems.
Explore research used to develop Checkpoint 3. Comprehension More Checkpoints Checkpoint 3. Checkpoint 3. Provide multiple means of Engagement. Provide options for Recruiting Interest guideline 7.
About Universal Design for Learning
Optimize individual choice and autonomy checkpoint 7. Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity checkpoint 7. Minimize threats and distractions checkpoint 7. Heighten salience of goals and objectives checkpoint 8. Vary demands and resources to optimize challenge checkpoint 8. Foster collaboration and community checkpoint 8. Increase mastery-oriented feedback checkpoint 8. Provide options for Self Regulation guideline 9.
Promote expectations and beliefs that optimize motivation checkpoint 9. Facilitate personal coping skills and strategies checkpoint 9. Develop self-assessment and reflection checkpoint 9. Provide multiple means of Representation. Provide options for Perception guideline 1. Offer ways of customizing the display of information checkpoint 1. Offer alternatives for auditory information checkpoint 1.Universal Design for Learning UDL is a framework to improve and optimize teaching and learning for all people based on scientific insights into how humans learn.
Find out how the UDL framework guides the design of instructional goals, assessments, methods, and materials that can be customized and adjusted to meet individual needs. CAST created the Universal Design for Learning framework, and it remains one of our core levers of change to help make learning inclusive and transformative for everyone.
These guidelines offer a set of concrete suggestions that can be applied to any discipline or domain to ensure that all learners can access and participate in meaningful, challenging learning opportunities. Visit the UDL Guidelines. Explore Engagement. Explore Representation. For strategic, goal-directed learners, differentiate the ways that students can express what they know.
About Universal Design for Learning. Share: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn. UDL at a Glance Find out how the UDL framework guides the design of instructional goals, assessments, methods, and materials that can be customized and adjusted to meet individual needs. Engagement For purposeful, motivated learners, stimulate interest and motivation for learning. Representation For resourceful, knowledgeable learners, present information and content in different ways.Student differ from each other in the ways they think and learn.
Universal Design for Learning UDL is a framework based on three principles designed to guide curriculum and lesson development to ensure that all individuals have equal opportunities to learn and can quickly engage with the instruction.
Digital technologies, online resources, and mobile devices can be used to design flexible instruction with options to support all students in achieving grade level standards. Discover how to help students value learning, increasing interest and active participation. Discover how to help students comprehend information and curriculum content.Give translate in tagalog
Discover how to help students set goals and share what they have learned. Complete this simple interactive activity where you match skills to the different UDL principles. Then return to this page. You need to have choices available in the classroom and in your instructional materials before you can give students options and flexibility in engagement, representation, and expression.
Download this survey and do a self-assessment on your instructional materials to see what options you have available as well as how much choice students have in choosing those options. Next, download this UDL Look For survey and use it to review the choices your students have and the choices in how you present information to your students. Then check out the on-line UDL Ideas, an interactive tool to help explore more instructional options.
Finally, there is a UDL poster with some of the information from this tutorial. The information and resources are provided as a free awareness service to the educational community and do not reflect any specific endorsement by any parties involved.Goals, Objectives, and Learning Outcomes
Classroom Implementation.UDL is a framework to guide the design of learning environments that are accessible and challenging for all. UDL aims to change the design of the environment rather than to change the learner. When environments are intentionally designed to reduce barriers, all learners can engage in rigorous, meaningful learning. The overarching framework of UDL motivated many stakeholders in the field to begin rethinking the design of their environments and curricula through a UDL lens.
Many stakeholders shared with us that the three principles of UDL were a useful start in designing for variability; yet, these stakeholders also felt as though the principles were too vague and that more specific guidance was needed. Inwe developed the first version of the UDL Guidelines in response to this important feedback. We hoped that these guidelines would provide concrete support to educators who were eager to apply the UDL framework to practice.
Since that time, we have revised the Guidelines to incorporate feedback from the field as well as expanding research in the areas of UDL, education, cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience. The UDL framework offers an overarching approach to designing meaningful learning opportunities that address learner variability and suggests purposeful, proactive attention to the design of goals, assessments, methods, and materials.
They can be used by professional educators, curriculum developers, researchers, parents, and anyone else who wants to apply the UDL framework to practice in a learning environment. We also believe the Guidelines can be valuable to learners themselves: they can act as a tool to support individuals in deepening their understanding of their own learning processes.
Vertically, the Guidelines are organized according to the three principles of UDL: engagement, representation, and action and expression. Horizontally, the Guidelines are organized into three rows. While there are thousands of networks specialized for different functions, some of the differences we can observe are systematic and predictable. We can proactively anticipate and plan for these differences. UDL emphasizes three large brain networks that comprise the vast majority of the human brain and play a central role in learning.
These networks include: the affective network how learners monitor the internal and external environment to set priorities, to motivate, and to engage learning and behaviorthe recognition network how learners sense and perceive information in the environment and transform it into usable knowledgeand the strategic network how learners plan, organize, and initiate purposeful actions in the environment.
While it should be noted that all the networks work together, CAST focuses on this simplified model of the brain to highlight what is relevant for the learning brain and to try to understand and plan for learner variability. The UDL Guidelines offer a systematic structure for addressing these barriers and for intentionally planning for learner variability. To address the needs of all of our learners, we need to be purposeful, proactive, and reflective in our design by constantly referring to the Guidelines as we plan our learning experiences.
The Guidelines are not meant to be applied to just one aspect of the curriculum or to just one group of students. Instead, the Guidelines are a tool to support the development of a shared language in the design of goals, assessments, methods, and materials that lead to accessible and challenging learning experiences for all.
We shared the first version of the Guidelines—Guidelines 1. Since that time, we have collected and specifically solicited feedback from the field. This feedback along with the expanding research in the areas of UDL, education, cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience has led us to develop different representations of the Guidelines.
There is no set order in which to use the Guidelines. They are intended to be mixed and matched according to specific learning goals.The UDL Guidelines are a tool used in the implementation of Universal Design for Learning, a framework to improve and optimize teaching and learning for all people based on scientific insights into how humans learn. The UDL Guidelines can be used by educators, curriculum developers, researchers, parents, and anyone else who wants to implement the UDL framework in a learning environment.
These guidelines offer a set of concrete suggestions that can be applied to any discipline or domain to ensure that all learners can access and participate in meaningful, challenging learning opportunities.
Because the UDL Guidelines are meant to be informed by feedback from the field as well as new research, they have been updated several times in the past. We are excited to announce that we have recently launched a new effort—UDL Rising to Equity—to update the Guidelines once again! This update will focus specifically on addressing systemic barriers that result in inequitable learning opportunities and outcomes. CAST aims to develop a transparent, inclusive, and community-driven process, and we hope you will join us.
If you are interested in collaborating and staying updated on our progress, we invite you to complete a brief survey. The UDL Guidelines. Share: Facebook Twitter LinkedIn.
Brief answers to frequently asked questions about the UDL Guidelines. Save and print the Guidelines Graphic Organizer including translated and past versions.
Learn more about the research evidence used to develop the Guidelines. Provide options for Recruiting Interest guideline 7. Optimize individual choice and autonomy checkpoint 7. Optimize relevance, value, and authenticity checkpoint 7. Minimize threats and distractions checkpoint 7. Heighten salience of goals and objectives checkpoint 8. Vary demands and resources to optimize challenge checkpoint 8. Foster collaboration and community checkpoint 8.
Increase mastery-oriented feedback checkpoint 8. Provide options for Self Regulation guideline 9. Promote expectations and beliefs that optimize motivation checkpoint 9. Facilitate personal coping skills and strategies checkpoint 9.
Develop self-assessment and reflection checkpoint 9. Provide multiple means of Representation. Provide options for Perception guideline 1. Offer ways of customizing the display of information checkpoint 1.
Offer alternatives for auditory information checkpoint 1. Offer alternatives for visual information checkpoint 1. Clarify vocabulary and symbols checkpoint 2. Clarify syntax and structure checkpoint 2.The coefficient of contingency is a Chi-square based measure of the relation between two categorical variables (proposed by Pearson, the originator of the Chi-square test).
Its advantage over the ordinary Chi-square is that it is more easily interpreted, since its range is always limited to 0 through 1 (where 0 means complete independence). Interpretation of Contingency Measures. An important disadvantage of measures of contingency (reviewed above) is that they do not lend themselves to clear interpretations in terms of probability or "proportion of variance," as is the case, for example, of the Pearson r (see Correlations).
There is no commonly accepted measure of relation between categories that has such a clear interpretation. Statistics Based on Ranks.Sadistic meaning in malayalam
Suppose we asked a sample of respondents to indicate their interest in watching different sports on a 4-point scale with the explicit labels (1) always, (2) usually, (3) sometimes, and (4) never interested. Obviously, we can assume that the response sometimes interested is indicative of less interest than always interested, and so on. Thus, we could rank the respondents with regard to their expressed interest in, for example, watching football.
When categorical variables can be interpreted in this manner, there are several additional indices that can be computed to express the relationship between variables. Detailed discussions of the Spearman R statistic, its power and efficiency can be found in Gibbons (1985), Hays (1981), McNemar (1969), Siegel (1956), Siegel and Castellan (1988), Kendall (1948), Olds (1949), or Hotelling and Pabst (1936). Kendall tau is equivalent to the Spearman R statistic with regard to the underlying assumptions.
It is also comparable in terms of its statistical power. However, Spearman R and Kendall tau are usually not identical in magnitude because their underlying logic, as well as their computational formulas are very different.
Siegel and Castellan (1988) express the relationship of the two measures in terms of the inequality:More importantly, Kendall tau and Spearman R imply different interpretations: While Spearman R can be thought of as the regular Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient as computed from ranks, Kendall tau rather represents a probability.
Specifically, it is the difference between the probability that the observed data are in the same order for the two variables versus the probability that the observed data are in different orders for the two variables. Kendall (1948, 1975), Everitt (1977), and Siegel and Castellan (1988) discuss Kendall tau in greater detail.
Two different variants of tau are computed, usually called taub and tauc. These measures differ only with regard as to how tied ranks are handled.
Frequently Asked Questions
In most cases these values will be fairly similar, and when discrepancies occur, it is probably always safest to interpret the lowest value. The Gamma statistic is preferable to Spearman R or Kendall tau when the data contain many tied observations. Thus, Gamma is basically equivalent to Kendall tau, except that ties are explicitly taken into account.Google maps moscow hotel
Detailed discussions of the Gamma statistic can be found in Goodman and Kruskal (1954, 1959, 1963, 1972), Siegel (1956), and Siegel and Castellan (1988). Multiple response variables or multiple dichotomies often arise when summarizing survey data.
Universal Design for Learning
The nature of such variables or factors in a table is best illustrated with examples. As part of a larger market survey, suppose you asked a sample of consumers to name their three favorite soft drinks. Also, a wide variety of soft drinks will most likely be named. The next question is how to enter the responses into a data file. Suppose 50 different soft drinks were mentioned among all of the questionnaires.
This method of coding the responses would be very tedious and "wasteful. Alternatively, we could set up three variables, and a coding scheme for the 50 soft drinks.The suggested sights and activities were always helpful. We never would have heard of it, but after seeing "The Eggs of Merry Bay" written in on our map, we looked it up, made the stop, and it was so worth it. We were so glad to have the other suggestions, like the farm in Efstidalur, for good local food (and ice cream) when we were out sightseeing.
Excellent job is all I can say. In planning my email questions were answered promptly and "with a smile" by Gudmunda Palmadottir. What can I say, she is fantastic.
It was an extremely well planned tour, the mapping was clear and distances reasonable. And the sights unforgettable especially the troll road. Accommodations were very good.
We had a very good experience.Gawah in hindi language
Having a representative at the car rental office was great. We were able to get the information we needed from her to get started. The maps and guides were great resources for the trip. Overall we are very pleased with Nordic Visitor. The planning and local support were great.
It was a wonderful experience. Overall, I'm really happy that my mom found Nordic Visitor and recommended that we book our honeymoon through this company. It was a really great decision. I personally had never left North America and traveling abroad was a little scary but knowing that everything was planned out, and ready to go for us was a relief.
I really like the self-drive tour aspect too because we got to stop and do whatever wanted along the way and as long as we made sure to make it to our hotel at a reasonable hour to check-in, we felt like we could explore to our hearts content. Absolutely superb in all aspects from start to finish. Would definitely use again and recommend to anyone interested in visiting Iceland.
Hotels were all excellent. Wonderful service at each place. Couldn't have been happier. This was a stress free trip because of the planning provided by Annie. I was able to review things to do with our kids so they could pick out the things that they wanted to do and see while visiting Scotland. It was nice to have a list of options to pick from. Every day was great. I especially loved the map with the highlighted routes, hotels and points of interest. While filling up the car, I got out to unfold the entire map and flip it over so we could see the upper section of Scotland.
My daughter told me that people were looking at me as I did this. I told her they had map envy. We found the tour expensive but we felt it was really worth it.
We felt totally pampered and happy that we didn't have to think about anything but getting in the car and seeing the country. We had 12-hour days most days and still didn't manage to see everything that was suggested, so another visit is already on the list.
Arnar was great in giving tips and patient with all our questions beforehand. Many thanks to Arnar and the rest of the staff for an exceptional experience.
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